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Using Trails

ID the Tree!

By: American Forests
March 18, 2022

W&OD Trail | Photo by Scott Stark
W&OD Trail | Photo by Scott Stark

This article was originally published on and is republished here in an edited format.

This April 23, we hope you’ll participate in Celebrate Trails Day, an annual spring celebration of America’s trails. A fun challenge while you’re outside is identifying the plant life that surrounds you. Special thanks to American Forests for sharing these great tips on identifying trees. While leaves can make tree identification much easier, you can use these pointers for identifying deciduous trees year-round, even in winter!

Branching Out

Photo by Scott Stark
Photo by Scott Stark

Observing the leaf and twig arrangement can tell you a lot about the kind of tree you are seeing. There are three main structures that you will look for:

  1. Trees with alternate leaf attachments have one unique leaf at each leaf node and usually alternate their direction along the stem.
  2. Trees with opposite leaf attachments have a pair of leaves at each node. The joy of opposite leaves is that only a few common tree families have these, and there is an easy acronym to remember: MADCap Horse.
  1. Trees with whorled leaf attachment often have three or more leaves attached at each node on the stem.

Be a Twig Detective

Photo by Scott Stark
Photo by Scott Stark

Twigs can often be identified by observing the following:

To help in this, find a good twig key, such as this one, to help you go step-by-step in determining where the twig came from.

Find the Fruits

Photo by Scott Stark
Photo by Scott Stark

Often in the winter, you will see some conspicuous, persistent fruits on the trees or evidence of the fruits below the trees. In most good tree identification books, you will be able to search out different types of fruits. A few common fruit types that you may find in the winter include:

Learn the Bark

Photo by Scott Stark
Photo by Scott Stark

Tree bark is an especially useful tool for tree ID in the winter. And, of course, there are various ways to describe what a bark might look like. Here are a few descriptions you might use when comparing tree bark:

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American Forests creates healthy and resilient forests, from cities to large natural landscapes, that deliver essential benefits for climate, people, water and wildlife. We advance our mission through forestry innovation, place-based partnerships to plant and restore forests, and movement building.

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